10. 310: Pope St. Eusebius Begins His Reign
The pontificate of Pope Eusebius, the 31st Pope of the Catholic Church and former priest of Greek origins, is measured not in years but in months (April-August/310). The controversy over readmission of fallen Christians to the church proved to be the downfall of the Pope, and in conflicts with Heraclius, Pope Eusebius was denounced for his policies as being too soft on the lapsi. Eusebius was deported to Sicily, where he died soon after.
9. 1517: Luther On Trial at Diet of Worms
Martin Luther, the chief catalyst of Protestantism, defies the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by refusing to recant his writings. He had been called to Worms, Germany, to appear before the Diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire and answer charges of heresy. In 1521, due to prior publication of radical beliefs, the pope excommunicated King and he was called to appear before the emperor at the Diet of Worms to defend his beliefs. Refusing to recant or rescind his positions, Luther was declared an outlaw and a heretic. Powerful German princes protected him, however, and by his death in 1546 his ideas had significantly altered the course of Western thought.
8. 1775:� Paul Revere rode from Charlestown to Lexington to warn Massachusetts colonists of the arrival of British troops during the American Revolution.
In Massachusetts, British troops marched out of Boston on a mission to confiscate the Patriot arsenal at Concord and to capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock, known to be hiding at Lexington. As the British departed, Boston Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes set out on horseback from the city to warn Adams and Hancock and rouse the Patriot minutemen.
7. 1909: Joan of Arc declared a saint
The first and often most difficult step is beatification. The promoters of the cause are asked to vouch for four authentic miracles in order to secure beatification. One miracle can be dispensed if the candidate has founded a religious order. In Joan�s case, the Pope granted dispensation because she had saved France. Joan�s journey to sainthood started in the year 1449, when Rouen, the city of Joan�s martyrdom, was recaptured by the French. Eighteen years had passed since Joan�s burning and her memory was not forgotten. In 1449, King Charles gave orders to investigate her trial. Four hundred fourteen years later, in 1869, Bishop Dupanloup of Orl�ans made an emotional speech about the importance of Joan as a patriot and a Catholic to Pope Pius IX in Rome to begin the process of canonization. Joan�s beatification was decreed by Pope Pius X on April 11, 1909.
6. 1906:� The Great San Francisco Earthquake destroyed over 4 sq mi. and killed over 500 people.
At 5:13 a.m., an earthquake estimated at close to 8.0 on the Richter scale strikes San Francisco, California, killing hundreds of people as it topples numerous buildings. The quake was caused by a slip of the San Andreas Fault over a segment about 275 miles long, and shock waves could be felt from southern Oregon down to Los Angeles. San Francisco’s brick buildings and wooden Victorian structures were especially devastated.
5. 1923:� The first game was played in Yankee Stadium (�the House that Ruth built�)
Yankees beat the Boston Red Sox 4�1 on the stadium’s Opening Day. Yankee Stadium was the first structure to be called a stadium, and it remains the world�s most famous eight decades after it opened.The large, horseshoe shaped ballpark is one of baseball�s most hallowed grounds and from the moment it opened in 1923 the home of the Yankees has been synonymous with championships.
Prior to moving into Yankee Stadium, which was built in just 284 days, New York had never won a World Series. That streak ended in the Stadium�s first year of business when the Yankees defeated the Giants in six games, the first of 26 titles for the pinstriped bunch from the Bronx.
4. 1950: First Transatlantic Jet Passenger Flight
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) flew the first jet airliner service using the de Havilland Comet, when G-APDC initiated the first transatlantic Comet 4 service and the first scheduled transatlantic passenger jet service in history, flying from London to New York with a stopover at Gander on 4 October 1958.
3. 1968:� London Bridge was sold to an American. It was rebuilt in Arizona.
Legend has it that the American purchasers believed that they were buying a spectacular structure with a pair of giant ornate exquisitely architectural towers, suspension sections, and a hydraulic lifting central bridge structure which could be raised to allow gigantic sea-going ships to pass beneath. That would have been TOWER BRIDGE, whereas the actuaIn 1962 the heavy traffic in London meant the old London Bridge really was falling down, so the British government put the bridge up for sale and asked for offers. The highest bid ($2,460,000) was by Robert McCulloch of McCulloch Oil, and he had the bridge disassembled and transported and rebuilt in Arizona. Although at first the bridge looked a bit out of place, it’s now become a major tourist attractionl item known as “London Bridge”, though historic and world-famous, was in fact a relatively ordinary bridge.
2. 1978:� The U.S. Senate Approves Hand Over of Panama Canal to Panamanian Control
The US Senate backed a treaty to transfer the Panama Canal to the control of Panama. The Senate’approved by 68 votes to 32 was just one vote more than the two-thirds majority required. The outcome was seen as a victory for President Jimmy Carter’s foreign policy.
1. 2002:� Afghanistan�s former king, Mohammad Zahir Shah, returned after 29 years in exile.
The life of the deposed monarch spanned some of the most tumultuous times in Afghanistan’s modern history, including the Soviet invasion, years of factional warfare, and the fundamentalist rule of the Taliban. His final years saw him return to Kabul, not as king but as a frail “father of the nation” intent on helping bring democracy to his homeland. Zahir Shah used his appearance at the unveiling of the draft of Afghanistan’s new constitution in November 2003 to make one of his frequent pleas for Afghans to work together.He passed away in 2007 and the country still struggles to achieve his vision.